Journal of AHIMA (ISSN 1060-5487) is published monthly, except for the combined issues of July/August and November/December, by the American Health Information Management Association, 233
North Michigan Avenue, 21st Floor, Chicago, IL 60601-5800. Subscription Rates: Included in AHIMA membership dues is a subscription to the Journal. The annual member subscription rate is $22.00
for active and graduate members, and $10.00 for student members. Subscription for nonmembers is $100 (domestic), $110 (Canada), $120 (all other outside the U.S.). Postmaster: Send address
changes to Journal of AHIMA, AHIMA, 233 North Michigan Avenue, 21st Floor, Chicago, IL 60601-5800. Notification of address change must be made six weeks in advance, including old and new
address with zip code. Periodical’s postage is paid in Chicago, IL, and additional mailing offices.
Notice of Policy
Editorial—views expressed in articles contributed to the Journal of AHIMA are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the policies and opinions of the Association, editorial review board, or staff.
Articles are not to be construed as endorsing any particular product or service. Advertising—products, services, and educational institutions advertised in the Journal do not imply endorsement by the Association.
Copyright © 2018 American Health Information Management Association ® Reg. US Pat. Off.
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JOURNAL OF AHIMA MISSION
The Journal of AHIMA serves as a professional development tool
for health information managers. It keeps its readers current on
issues that affect the practice of health information management.
Furthermore, the Journal contributes to the field by publishing work
that disseminates best practices and presents new knowledge.
Articles are grounded in experience or applied research, and they
represent the diversity of health information management roles and
healthcare settings. Finally, the Journal contains news on the work
of the American Health Information Management Association.
The Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and
Information Management Education ( www.cahiim.org) accredits
degree-granting programs at the associate, baccalaureate, and
master’s degree levels.
AHIMA recognizes coding certificate programs approved by the
Approval Committee for Certificate Programs. For a complete list of
AHIMA-approved coding programs and HIM career pathways go to
INTERIM AHIMA CEO Pamela Lane, MS, RHIA
EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Anne Zender, MA
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Chris Dimick
ASSISTANT EDITOR/WEB EDITOR Sarah Sheber
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Mary Butler
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Sue Bowman, MJ, RHIA, CCS, FAHIMA
Patricia Buttner, RHIA, CDIP, CCS, CHDA, CPHI
Tammy Combs, RN, MSN, CCS, CCDS, CDIP
Angie Comfort, RHIA, CDIP, CCS, CCS-P
Kathy Downing, MA, RHIA, CHPS, CPHI, PMP
Melanie Endicott, MBA/HCM, RHIA, CHDA, CCS, CCS-P,
Kristi Fahy, RHIA
Lesley Kadlec, MA, RHIA
Ann Meehan, RHIA
Anna Orlova, PhD
Donna Rugg, RHIT, CCS, CDIP
Gina Sanvik, MS, RHIA
Maria Ward, MEd, RHIT, CCS, CCS-P
Diana Warner, MS, RHIA, CHPS, FAHIMA
Lou Ann Wiedemann, MS, RHIA, CHDA, CDIP, CPEHR,
ART DIRECTOR Graham Simpson
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Linda Belli, RHIA
Gerry Berenholz, MPH, RHIA
Carol A. Campbell, DBA, RHIA, FAHIMA
Rose T. Dunn, MBA, RHIA, CPA, CHPS, FACHE, FAHIMA
Diane A. Kriewall, RHIA
Glenda Lyle, RHIA
Daniel J. Pothen, MS, RHIA
Tricia Truscott, MBA, RHIA, CHP
Carolyn R. Valo, MS, RHIT, FAHIMA
Valerie Watzlaf, PhD, RHIA, FAHIMA